Design and performance evaluation of the "iTIVA" algorithm for manual infusion of intravenous anesthetics based on effect-site target

  • David Eduardo Ramírez Department of Anesthesiology, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia
  • José Andrés Calvache a. Department of Anesthesiology, Universidad del Cauca, Popayan, Colombia. b. Anesthesiology & Biostatistics Department, Erasmus University Medical Centre Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Keywords: Propofol, Pharmacokinetics, Anesthesia, Computer simulation, Infusion pumps.


Introduction: Remifentanil and propofol infusion using TCI pumps has proven to be beneficial for the practice of anesthesia but the availability of these systems is limited.

Objective: Designing a pharmacokinetic model-based algorithm for calculating manual infusion regimens to achieve plasma and effect-site concentrations that may be used in volume infusion pumps, and to compare the difference between the desired and the predicted concentrations via pharmacokinetic simulation.

Methods: Using the Minto & Schnider models for remifentanil and propofol respectively, the algorithm was implemented on an iTIVA application (interactive TIVA) for iOS and Android operating systems. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated estimating the infusion regimens for achieving different effect-site concentrations for induction and maintenance in 34 theoretical patients for 240 min.

Results: The infusion regimens obtained for remifentanil and propofol resulted in less than 5% average systemic deviation versus the target effect-site concentrations during induction and maintenance. Only one induction infusion was required for remifentanil and propofol. Just one infusion rate was required for remifentanil during maintenance, and between 2 and 5 infusion rate changes for propofol to maintain a stable concentration. The iTIVA-based algorithm estimates concentrations similar to the TivaTrainer® software.

Conclusions: The performance of the algorithm to achieve effect-site concentrations during induction and maintenance for remifentanil and propofol was excellent, with a low systemic deviation versus the desired target concentrations.


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How to Cite
Ramírez DE, Calvache JA. Design and performance evaluation of the "iTIVA" algorithm for manual infusion of intravenous anesthetics based on effect-site target. Colomb. J. Anesthesiol. [Internet]. 2016Apr.1 [cited 2021Jun.24];44(2):105–113. Available from:


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How to Cite
Ramírez DE, Calvache JA. Design and performance evaluation of the "iTIVA" algorithm for manual infusion of intravenous anesthetics based on effect-site target. Colomb. J. Anesthesiol. [Internet]. 2016Apr.1 [cited 2021Jun.24];44(2):105–113. Available from: