Analysis of complications after Whipple's procedure using ERAS protocols
The administration of perioperative fluids is a controversial issue that can be associated with the development of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after Whipple procedure.
To evaluate whether intraoperative fluid management along with Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) protocols affect outcomes following major pancreatic resection.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2017, collecting all patients scheduled for duodenopancreatectomy (DP). Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the use of ERAS protocols and the use of a fluid therapy algorithm.
A total of 67 patients were analyzed, 49.3% of which were females. The most frequent diagnoses were Pancreatic Cancer n:48 (71.6%), followed by intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm n:6 (9%). The majority of patients were in the ERAS group n:46 (68.7%); 80.4% and 95.7% of them did not develop pancreatic fistula or delayed gastric emptying (DGE) respectively, and the incidence for both was 11.94%. Fluid therapy was below 5000 mL (P=0.001) with blood loss less 300 mL (P = 0.001) in the ERAS group. The length of stay was shorter in the ERAS group (7 days, interquartilel range 5-12, P < 0.001). No differences in 30 days mortality were found.
The implementation of ERAS protocols in DP did show a decrease in intraoperative blood loss, intravenous fluids therapy, need for transfusion, DGE, or total hospital stay. However, intraoperative fluid restriction in DP did not show a reduction in the development of POPF.
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