Mental health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic associated with social isolation
The 2019 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is a public health emergency of international concern, which poses a major challenge to mental health as a result of its unprecedented impact in this 21st century. Research in past epidemics has revealed a deep and wide range of psychosocial consequences at the individual and collective level. There are multiple associated psychological disturbances, ranging from isolated symptoms to complex disorders with marked impairment of functionality, such as insomnia, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Therefore, it is necessary for mental health services to develop strategies that allow them to react skillfully and provide support to health workers and the affected population so as to reduce the psychological impact as well as the development of psychiatric symptoms. The purpose of this reflection article is to show the possible consequences on the mental health of the population as a result of social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Torales J, O'Higgins M, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Ventriglio A. The outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2020:20764020915212. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020915212.
Wu KK, Chan SK, Ma TM. Posttraumatic stress after SARS. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11(8):1297-300. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3201/eid1108.041083.
Mak IW, Chu CM, Pan PC, Yiu MG, Chan VL. Long-term psychiatric morbidities among SARS survivors. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2009;31(4):318-26. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2009.03.001.
Kim H-C, Yoo S-Y, Lee B-H, Lee SH, Shin H-S. Psychiatric findings in suspected and confirmed middle east respiratory syndrome patients quarantined in hospital: A Retrospective chart analysis. Psychiatry Investig. 2018;15(4):355-60. DOI: http://doi.org/10.30773/pi.2017.10.25.1.
Huremovic D. Psychiatry of pandemics: A mental health response to infection outbreak. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing; 2019. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-15346-5.
Styra R, Hawryluck L, Robinson S, Kasapinovic S, Fones C, Gold WL. Impact on health care workers employed in high-risk areas during the Toronto SARS outbreak. J Psychosom Res. 2008;64(2):177-83. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.07.015.
Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(5). DOI: http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729.
Chen Q, Liang M, Li Y, Guo J, Fei D, Wang L, et al. Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(4):e15-e6. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30078-X.
Chan AO, Huak CY. Psychological impact of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak on health care workers in a medium size regional general hospital in Singapore. Occup Med (Lond). 2004;54(3):190-6. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqh027.
Greenberg N, Docherty M, Gnanapragasam S, Wessely S. Managing mental health challenges faced by healthcare workers during covid-19 pandemic. BMJ. 2020;368:m1211. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1211.
Xiang YT, Jin Y, Cheung T. Joint international collaboration to combat mental health challenges during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. JAMA Psychiatry. 2020. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1057.
Peng EY, Lee MB, Tsai ST, Yang CC, Morisky DE, Tsai LT, et al. Population-based post-crisis psychological distress: an example from the SARS outbreak in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc. 2010;109(7):524-32. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S0929-6646(10)60087-3.
Lee SM, Kang WS, Cho AR, Kim T, Park JK. Psychological impact of the 2015 MERS outbreak on hospital workers and quarantined hemodialysis patients. Compr Psychiatry. 2018;87:123-7. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2018.10.003.
Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai Z, Hu J, Wei N, et al. Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e203976. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976.
Chua SE, Cheung V, Cheung C, McAlonan GM, Wong JWS, Cheung EPT, et al. Psychological effects of the sars outbreak in hong kong on high-risk health care workers. Can J Psychiatry. 2004;49(6):391-3. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/070674370404900609.
Wu P, Fang Y, Guan Z, Fan B, Kong J, Yao Z, et al. The psychological impact of the SARS epidemic on hospital employees in China: exposure, risk perception, and altruistic acceptance of risk. Can J Psychiatry. 2009;54(5):302-11. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/070674370905400504.
Luyt CE, Combes A, Becquemin MH, Beigelman-Aubry C, Hatem S, Brun AL, et al. Long-term outcomes of pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1)-associated severe ARDS. Chest. 2012;142(3):583-92. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1378/chest.11-2196.
Altena E, Baglioni C, Espie CA, Ellis J, Gavriloff D, Holzinger B, et al. Dealing with sleep problems during home confinement due to the COVID-19 outbreak: practical recommendations from a task force of the European CBT-I Academy. J Sleep Res. 2020. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13052.
Xiang YT, Yang Y, Li W, Zhang L, Zhang Q, Cheung T, et al. Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(3):228-9. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30046-8.
Mowbray H. In Beijing, coronavirus 2019-nCoV has created a siege mentality. BMJ. 2020;368:m516. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m516.
Park JS, Lee EH, Park NR, Choi YH. Mental health of nurses working at a government-designated hospital during a MERS-CoV Outbreak: A Cross-sectional study. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2018;32(1):2-6. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2017.09.006.
Qureshi K, Gershon RR, Sherman MF, Straub T, Gebbie E, McCollum M, et al. Health care workers' ability and willingness to report to duty during catastrophic disasters. J Urban Health. 2005;82(3):378-88. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1093/jurban/jti086.
Shigemura J, Ursano RJ, Morganstein JC, Kurosawa M, Benedek DM. Public responses to the novel 2019 coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Japan: Mental health consequences and target populations. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2020;74(4):281-2. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12988.
Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet. 2020;395(10227):912-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8.
Y Zhang C, Yang L, Liu S, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai Z, et al. Survey of insomnia and related social psychological factors among medical staff involved in the 2019 novel coronavirus disease outbreak. Front Psychiatry. 2020;11. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00306.
Li W, Yang Y, Liu ZH, Zhao YJ, Zhang Q, Zhang L, et al. Progression of mental health services during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Int J Biol Sci. 2020;16(10):1732-8. DOI: http://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45120.
Lau JT, Yang X, Tsui HY, Pang E, Wing YK. Positive mental health-related impacts of the SARS epidemic on the general public in Hong Kong and their associations with other negative impacts. J Infect. 2006;53(2):114-24. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2005.10.019.
Minihan E, Gavin B, Kelly BD, McNicholas F. Covid-19, mental health and psychological first aid. Irish J Psychol Med. 2020;1-12. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1017/ipm.2020.41.
Fox JH, Burkle FM, Bass J, Pia FA, Epstein JL, Markenson D. The effectiveness of psychological first aid as a disaster intervention tool: Research analysis of peer-reviewed literature from 1990-2010. Disaster Med Public Health Prepar. 2012; 6(03), 247-52. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1001/dmp.2012.39.
Flanagan E, Chadwick R, Goodrich J, Ford C, Wickens R. Reflection for all healthcare staff: A national evaluation of Schwartz Rounds. J Interprof Care. 2020;34(1):140-2. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/13561820.2019.1636008.
Roberts M. Balint groups: a tool for personal and professional resilience. Can Fam Physician. 2012;58(3):245-7.
Moring JC, Dondanville KA, Fina BA, Hassija C, Chard K, Monson, et al. Cognitive processing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder via telehealth: Practical considerations during the COVID‐19 pandemic. J Traum Stress. 2020. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22544.
Ornell F, Schuch JB, Sordi AO, Kessler FHP. "Pandemic fear" and COVID-19: mental health burden and strategies. Braz J Psychiatry. 2020. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2020-0008.
Ohannessian R, Duong TA, Odone A. Global telemedicine implementation and integration within health systems to fight the COVID-19 pandemic: A call to action. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020;6(2):e18810. DOI: http://doi.org/10.2196/18810.
Moazzami B, Razavi-Khorasani N, Dooghaie Moghadam A, Farokhi E, Rezaei N. COVID-19 and telemedicine: Immediate action required for maintaining healthcare providers well-being. J Clin Virol. 2020;126:104345. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104345.
Manderscheid RW. Preparing for pandemic Avian influenza: ensuring mental health services and mitigating panic. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2007;21(1):64-7. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2006.10.003.
Li S, Wang Y, Xue J, Zhao N, Zhu T. The Impact of COVID-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: A study on active Weibo users. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(6). DOI: http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062032.
Elizarrarás-Rivas J, Vargas-Mendoza JE, Mayoral-García M, Matadamas-Zárate C, Elizarraras-Cruz A, Taylor M, et al. Psychological response of family members of patients hospitalised for influenza A/H1N1 in Oaxaca, Mexico. BMC Psychiatry. 2010;10:104. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-10-104.
This document does not have Crossref citations yet.