Experience with veno-venous ecmo in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome secondary to viral pneumonia. Case series
Introduction: The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has increased exponentially in recent years and has shown to be effective in treating adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to H1N1-related pneumonia. However, evidence remains controversial. This study describes a case series of ECMO in ARDS secondary to viral pneumonia.
Methods: A search was conducted in the ECMO database of Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia for the 2013-2017 period. A case series report was written of patients diagnosed with ARDS secondary to confirmed or suspected viral pneumonia.
Results: Nineteen patients with ECMO support and ARDS due to viral pneumonia were included in the study. The survival rate upon discharge was 11 patients (58%) and weaning from ECMO support was successful in 13 patients (68%). Hemorrhagic complications were the most frequent: gastrointestinal bleeding, 10 patients (53%); intracranial bleeding, 2 (10%); alveolar hemorrhage, 2 (10%);’ hemothorax requiring thoracostomy with chest tube drainage, 2 (10%); cannulation site bleeding, 9 patients (47%); and surgical site bleeding in 3 patients (25%) who required tracheostomy. Other complications were: pneumothorax, 1 patient (5%); sepsis, 6 patients (32%); and growth of microorganisms in bronchial lavage, 6 patients (32%).
Conclusions: This study supports the use of veno-venous ECMO to achieve a higher survival rate than expected in patients with severe ARDS and refractory hypoxemia secondary to viral pneumonia. Early initiation of the therapy should improve overall results.
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