Mortality in civilian trauma patients and massive blood transfusion treated with high vs low plasma: red blood cell ratio. Systematic review and meta-analysis
Introduction: Massive bleeding in civilian trauma patients leads to dilutional coagulopathy. Transfusion with high plasma: red blood cell (RBC) ratio has been effective in reducing mortality in war trauma patients. However, in civilian trauma the evidence is controversial.
Objective: To assess the impact on mortality of high vs low plasma: RBC ratio transfusion, in civilian trauma patients with massive bleeding.
Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis, including observational studies and clinical trials, was conducted. Databases were systemically searched for relevant studies between January 2007 and June 2019. The main outcome was early (24-hours) and late (30-day) mortality. Fixed and random effects models were used.
Results: Out of 1295 studies identified, 33 were selected: 2 clinical trials and 31 observational studies. The analysis of observational trials showed both decreased early mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60–0.75) and late mortality (OR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71–0.87) with the use of high plasma:RBC ratio transfusion, but there were no differences when clinical trials were evaluated (OR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.64–1.26). The exclusion of patients who died within the first 24hours was a source of heterogeneity. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) altered the association between high plasma: RBC ratio and mortality, with a reduced protective effect when the ISS was high.
Conclusion: The use of high vs low plasma: RBC ratio transfusion, in patients with massive bleeding due to civil trauma, has a protective effect on early and late mortality in observational studies. The exclusion of patients who died within the first 24 hours was a source of heterogeneity.
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