Risk factors of self-extubation in intensive care. Retrospective cohort study
Introduction: Acute respiratory failure remains one of the three leading causes of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Self-extubation is an adverse outcome requiring reintubation in 50% of cases.
Objective: To assess for determinants (risk factors) of self-extubation and mortality in the ICU by using a generalized estimation equation model (GEE).
Methods: The data was collected from a retrospective cohort study from 2017-2020 including all patients admitted to the ICU with mechanical ventilation. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed. Then, a GEE model was conducted to predict the risk of self-extubation and mortality.
Results: A total of 857 subjects were included, with a mean age of 60.5 +/- 17 years-old. Most of the subjects were males (55.2%). An 8.99-fold risk (95%CI 3.83-21.1, p<0.01) of self-extubation was identified in patients with agitation. Exposure to infusion of neuromuscular blockade was also found to increase the risk of self-extubation 3.37 times (95%CI 1.31-8.68, p=0.01). No associations were identified between immobilization and self-extubation (OR 1.38 95%CI 0.76-2.51, p=0.29). Finally, light sedation according to the Richmond Sedation Scale (RASS) between 0 to -2 rather than moderate (RASS-3) reduces the risk of mortality (OR 0.57, 95%CI 0.38-0.83, p<0.01).
Conclusions: The main factors resulting in self-extubation were: agitation, delirium, and infusion of neuromuscular blocking agents. An association was found between light sedation and a lower risk of mortality. No association was found between the use of physical restraint and the desired outcome.
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