Perioperative considerations in a girl with Glanzmann thrombasthenia. Case report
Introduction: Glanzmann thromboasthenia is a rare congenital bleeding disorder caused by a mutation in platelet glycoprotein α-IIb and β3 encoding genes (ITGA2B; 607759 and ITGB3; 173470) in chromosomes 17q21.31 and 17q21.32 , respectively, which results in a qualitative or quantitative alteration of the platelet integrin αIIbβ3 (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) receptor. Glanzmann thromboasthenia is classified as type I when less than 5% of glycoprotein αIIbβ3 is expressed, and as type II when more than 5% is expressed.
Case presentation: Description of the perioperative management of a 13-year-old female patient with Glanzmann thromboasthenia who underwent endoscopic anterior bilateral ethmoidectomy. Management was centered on prophylactic platelet transfusion plus the use of tranexamic acid, as well as thromboelastographic determination of hemostasis. There were no bleeding complications during or after the procedure.
Conclusions: Pediatric patients with Glanzmann thromboasthenia are at a high risk of perioperastive bleeding. Platelet transfusion is the best prophylactic and therapeutic alternative; however, even in the absence of anti-platelet antibodies, it may not be effective, and viscoelastic testing must be used for assessment during the surgical procedure in order to improve patient safety.
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