Premedication with midazolam in low-risk surgery in children does not reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium. Cohort study

  • Víctor Hugo González Cárdenas a. Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud (FUCS). Bogotá, Colombia. b. Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Universidad de La Sabana. Chía, Colombia. c. Chronic Pediatric Pain, McGill University. Montreal, Canada. d. Hospital Universitario de la Samaritana. Bogotá, Colombia. e. Los Cobos Medical Center. Bogotá, Colombia. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2193-1106
  • Daniel Santiago Benítez Ávila a. Los Cobos Medical Center. Bogotá, Colombia. b. Clínica Country. Bogotá, Colombia.
  • Wilson Javier Gómez Barajas a. Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud (FUCS). Bogotá, Colombia. b. Hospital Infantil Universitario de San José. Bogotá, Colombia.
  • Mario Alexander Tamayo Reina a. Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud (FUCS). Bogotá, Colombia. b. Hospital Infantil Universitario de San José. Bogotá, Colombia.
  • Igor Leonardo Pinzón Villazón a. Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, Colombia. b. Hospital Universitario San Ignacio. Bogotá, Colombia.
  • José Luis Cuervo Pulgarín a. Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud (FUCS). Bogotá, Colombia. b. Hospital Infantil Universitario de San José. Bogotá, Colombia.
  • William Sneyder Díaz Díaz a. Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud (FUCS). Bogotá, Colombia. b. Hospital Infantil Universitario de San José. Bogotá, Colombia.
  • Ivonne Alejandra Martínez a. Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud (FUCS). Bogotá, Colombia. b. Hospital Infantil Universitario de San José. Bogotá, Colombia.
Keywords: Delirium, Emergence delirium, Pediatrics, Midazolam, Postoperative pain, Anesthesiology

Abstract

Introduction: Pediatric postoperative delirium is a frequent complication for which preventive pharmacological measures have been suggested.  The use of midazolam as a prophylactic strategy has not yet been thoroughly assessed. Notwithstanding the fact that it is used in pediatric presurgical separation anxiety, its role in delirium is yet to be established. 

Objective: To quantify the incidence of pediatric postoperative delirium in patients undergoing low risk surgical interventions, exposed to oral midazolam-based premedication and to explore the protective and risk factors associated with the development of delirium.  

Materials and methods: Prospective, analytical observational study with a cohort design. Children were conveniently selected in accordance with the daily list  of surgical procedures in the operating rooms.   The inclusion criteria were children between 2 and 10 years old, ASA I-II, undergoing low risk surgeries. Concurrent and longitudinal follow-up was then conducted upon admission to the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) for the first hour.

Results: A total of 518 children were included. The overall incidence of delirium was 14.4 % (95 % CI: 11.4 %-17.5 %). In the subgroup exposed to midazolam, 178 children were analyzed, with an incidence of delirium of 16.2% (95% CI of 10,8 %-21,7).  These patients exhibited a higher tendency to delirium with the use of sevoflurane or fentanyl, and/or when presenting with severe postoperative pain. Patients exposed to propofol and/or remifentanil showed lower incidences.

Conclusions: No reduction in the incidence of emergency pediatric delirium associated with the use of pre-surgical oral midazolam in low risk surgical procedures. Prospective controlled trials and additional research are required to study the effectiveness and safety of this intervention.

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How to Cite
1.
González Cárdenas VH, Benítez Ávila DS, Gómez Barajas WJ, Tamayo Reina MA, Pinzón Villazón IL, Cuervo Pulgarín JL, et al. Premedication with midazolam in low-risk surgery in children does not reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium. Cohort study. Colomb. J. Anesthesiol. [Internet]. 2022 Oct. 27 [cited 2024 Jun. 15];51(2). Available from: https://www.revcolanest.com.co/index.php/rca/article/view/1055

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Published
2022-10-27
How to Cite
1.
González Cárdenas VH, Benítez Ávila DS, Gómez Barajas WJ, Tamayo Reina MA, Pinzón Villazón IL, Cuervo Pulgarín JL, et al. Premedication with midazolam in low-risk surgery in children does not reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium. Cohort study. Colomb. J. Anesthesiol. [Internet]. 2022 Oct. 27 [cited 2024 Jun. 15];51(2). Available from: https://www.revcolanest.com.co/index.php/rca/article/view/1055
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